The Commens Dictionary

Quote from ‘Notes for my Logical Criticism of Articles of the Christian Creed’


… all Reasoning is either Deduction, Induction, or Retroduction.

[—] I have constantly since 1860, or 50 years, had this question prominently in mind, and if I had ever met with an argument not of one of these three kinds, I must certainly have perceived it. But I never have found any such kind of argument except Analogy, which, as I have shown, is of a nature, – a mixture of the three recognized kinds.

CP 7.97-98
‘Analogy’ (pub. 05.01.13-10:05). Quote in M. Bergman & S. Paavola (Eds.), The Commens Dictionary: Peirce's Terms in His Own Words. New Edition. Retrieved from
Jan 05, 2013, 10:05 by Sami Paavola
Last revised: 
Aug 22, 2017, 09:39 by Mats Bergman