… So that induction is the inference of the rule from the case and result.
But this is not the only way of inverting a deductive syllogism so as to produce a synthetic inference. [—] We have, then–
DEDUCTION.
Rule.–All the beans from this bag are white.
Case.–These beans are from this bag.
.·.Result.–These beans are white.
INDUCTION.
Case.–These beans are from this bag.
Result.–These beans are white.
.·.Rule.–All the beans from this bag are white
HYPOTHESIS.
Rule.–All the beans from this bag are white.
Result.–These beans are white.
.·.Case.–These beans are from this bag.
We, accordingly, classify all inference as follows:
Inference.
|——————————|
Deductive or Analytic. Synthetic.
|—————–|
Induction. Hypothesis.
Induction is where we generalize from a number of cases of which something is true, and infer that the same thing is true of a whole class. Or, where we find a certain thing to be true of a certain proportion of cases and infer that it is true of the same proportion of the whole class.