Published on *Commens* (http://www.commens.org)

‘Induction’ (pub. 30.01.13-19:20). Quote in M. Bergman & S. Paavola (Eds.), *The Commens Dictionary: Peirce's Terms in His Own Words. New Edition*. Retrieved from http://www.commens.org/dictionary/entry/quote-deduction-induction-and-hypothesis-3.

Term:

Induction

Quote:

… So that induction is the inference of the* rule* from the *case* and *result*.

But this is not the only way of inverting a deductive syllogism so as to produce a synthetic inference. [—] We have, then–

DEDUCTION.

*Rule*.–All the beans from this bag are white.*Case*.–These beans are from this bag.

.·.*Result*.–These beans are white.

INDUCTION.

*Case*.–These beans are from this bag.*Result*.–These beans are white.

.·.*Rule*.–All the beans from this bag are white

HYPOTHESIS.

*Rule*.–All the beans from this bag are white.*Result*.–These beans are white.

.·.*Case*.–These beans are from this bag.

We, accordingly, classify all inference as follows:

Inference.

|——————————|

Deductive or Analytic. Synthetic.

|—————–|

Induction. Hypothesis.

Induction is where we generalize from a number of cases of which something is true, and infer that the same thing is true of a whole class. Or, where we find a certain thing to be true of a certain proportion of cases and infer that it is true of the same proportion of the whole class.

Source:

Peirce, C. S. (1878). Deduction, Induction, and Hypothesis. *Popular Science Monthly*, *13*, 470-482.

References:

CP 2.623

Date of Quote:

1878

URL:

http://www.commens.org/dictionary/entry/quote-deduction-induction-and-hypothesis-3